Penn State News: GIS technology helps map out how America’s mafia networks were ‘connected’

Penn State News: GIS technology helps map out how America’s mafia networks were ‘connected’. “At its height in the mid-20th century, American organized crime groups, often called the mafia, grossed approximately $40 billion each year, typically raising that money through illegal or untaxed activities, such as extortion and gambling. A team of researchers used geographic information systems — a collection of tools for geographic mapping and analysis of the Earth and society — and data from a government database on mafia ties during the 1960s, to examine how these networks were built, maintained and grown.”